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CNT-MXene membranes for electrochemical energy storage applications


2D MXenes, Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), CNTs dispersion, Electrochemical properties, Li-O2 batteries


Superior prospect of 2D MXenes for electrochemical energy storage applications.
Restacking and agglomeration of MXenes considerably limit their true potential for fast ion transport.
CNTs were dispersed to control the structure and porosity of MXene membranes.
CNT–MXene hybrid membranes show dramatically improved Li-ion transport properties.


• A scalable method to fabricate ultralight yet continuous CNT–MXene membranes with uniform/3D CNTs dispersion.
• Correlation among CNTs content, surface microstructure, MXenes’ stacking structure & ion transport properties of the films.
• Li-ion transport mechanisms in the CNT–MXene membranes.
• MXene membranes with tunable 2D and 3D structures with improved ion-transport performances.
• Potential application of selected CNT–MXene ultralight membranes as interlayers for Li-O2 batteries.



The compact surface microstructure of MXene membranes is dramatically changed as CNTs occupy MXene/MXene edge interfaces.
The 2D stacking order of MXenes is preserved up to 30 wt% CNTs.
The 2D alignment is completely disrupted at 40 wt% CNTs, and a more pronounced surface opening and internal expansion of ~770% are realized.
Both 30 wt% and 40 wt% membranes show stable cycling performance under a significantly higher current density due to faster transport channels.
Notably, for the 3D 40 wt% membrane, over-potential during repeated Li deposition/dissolution reactions is further reduced by another ~50%.
Ultralight yet continuous hybrid films comprising up to ~0.027 mg/cm2 Ti3C2 MXene can be prepared using aqueous colloidal dispersions and vacuum filtration for specific applications


• A method to fabricate ultralight yet continuous CNT–MXene membranes for electrochemical energy storage applications.
• Inexpensive multi-walled CNTs control the structure of MXene membranes and improve their ion-transport properties.